Not the questions I would ask but the thoughts I would process prior to that meeting. The questions themselves will drop out of the following initial thoughts.
What you need to find out about is anything that prevents you delivering the project given just the above starting information. It's likely to be an iterative process with a number of meetings along the way so make sure your client is aware of that and will not be fazed when you come back with more questions along the way. It is an absolute certainty that you will not get everything you need at the first meeting.
Make sure the customer knows you have it all under control and agree on some initial *estimated* dates for various stages of the project, e.g. first prototype, first delivery, and make sure you understand the business framework in which this is operating, e.g. when do they absolutely have to have v1 of the poduct? Make sure they understand what feature creep is and that any additional features requested will have an effect on the dates agreed. Prioritise the features needed and implement the most important ones first.
Also make sure you can discuss the application behaviour with the plebs that'll be using it. It's a huge mistake for managers to think they can specify the system without reference to the users. For example the replacement for the Heathrow Air Traffic Control system was designed by managers and came in massively late and massively over budget because when the plebs got their hands on it they found it was completely useless. Can you find any other real world projects that highlight potential problems with the approach taken by your customer?
It could be a good idea to sketch out the data flow and make sure that agrees with the customer's understanding of what will happen. Also worth sketching out are any processes that need following - business processes, that sort of stuff.
Also have a go at some user interfaces and see what the customer thinks. There's obviously going to be an order detail screen with some customer details, a best finish time, late finish date, finishing late penalty and some other stuff you may be able to determine from the above spec. This will help the customer think of other stuff they may have missed out. Why would there be a penalty for finishing early? Do they think such a penalty would be paid? (Anyone with any sense would just procrastinate to avoid the penalty so what business reasons would they have for a completed project NOT being delivered before a specific date?)
What other screens will there be? Knowing who needs to do what with the application is key to this.
Each screen will suggest database implications. Can a screen pretty much match up to a table? Do screen links suggest database links (e.g. primary/foreign keys, lookup tables, ...) What other tables might be needed?