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C's Memory Map

Discussion in 'C' started by karun_happy, Dec 13, 2006.

  1. karun_happy

    karun_happy New Member

    Can anyone tell me

    What is stack and heap in c's memory map?

    thanks
    regards
    Karun
     
  2. DaWei

    DaWei New Member

    Stack is a certain amount of memory given you for auto (local) variables. Although its implementation is not specified by the language, it is often implemented using the processor's stack. Arguments to funtions are placed there, and variables local to the function are placed there. If I can dig up a little explanation that I have for that type of implementation, I'll post it in this thread.

    The heap, or free store (not a heap, as in heap sort), is a chunk of memory set aside for processes to borrow memory from, dynamically. If you borrow it, you have to return it. If you don't, you cause memory leaks. Typically, when you return it, it doesn't go back into the main heap, but is freed for your further use for different purposes. Most language implementations make arrangements for you to return it to the main heap, though, if you like. Most modern, capable OSes can use virtual memory techniques, involving mass storage, to effectively make available very large amounts of heap.

    In addition to the stack and heap you get memory for your code and for your static or global data.
     
  3. shabbir

    shabbir Administrator Staff Member

    very well explained DaWei.
    [comment]By the way very nice avatar[/comment]
     
  4. DaWei

    DaWei New Member

    A STACK ILLUSTRATION

    Most microprocessors have an internal pointer (the stack pointer) which references
    memory so that the micro can keep track of the point of execution as it varies because
    of interrupts, function calls, and so forth. The stack (memory to which it points)
    is also used by many systems (sometimes unfortunately) as a storage place for local
    values, saved registers, and so forth.

    Just prior to a call, the stack pointer, which is much like any pointer one defines, is
    pointing to some place in memory (designated by the programmer or the operating
    system) for its use. When you call a function, it works something like this (its usage varies
    somewhat from language to language).
    Code:
    stack pointer -->| orig position | In most systems, the stack pointer moves toward
                     |               | lower addresses as you use it.
                     ~               ~
    
    At call:         | orig position |
                     |   arguments   |
    stack pointer -->| last argument |
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     ~               ~
    
    There may be zero or more arguments.  They are pushed onto the stack in a predetermined
    order.  For C/C++, it is right-to-left.  The stack pointer moves with each push.
    
    After call:      | orig position |
                     | argument here |
                     | (maybe more)
    stack pointer -->| ret addr here |
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     ~               ~
    
    Into procedure   | orig position | 
    Arguments avail  | arguments...  | When you modify the argument(s), you modify
    for use          | ret addr here | the value(s) stored here.  If an argument
                     |  saved regs,  | is a reference or pointer you may use it to
                     | locals, etc.  | modify the value pointed to elsewhere
                     | in this area  | (in the calling procedure, say).  If you write
    stack pointer -->|               | more data to one of the local variables than it
                     ~               ~ can store, guess where the excess winds up.
    
    The function does its work and unwinds the stack (locals, etc.)
    
    Before return    | orig position | Immediately before the return, after storage
                     | arguments...  | for saved registers, locals, etc. has already
    stack pointer -->| ret addr here | been recovered (and disappeared). The arguments
                     |               | are still on the stack.
                     |               |
                     |               |
                     ~               ~
    
    After return:    | orig position | Immediately after the return.  The very first
    stack pointer -->| arguments...  | thing the machine is going to do next is destroy
                     |               | the arguments, whether you've modified them or not.
                     |               | Sometimes the arguments are removed by the called
                     |               | function and the return address position adjusted
                     |               | appropriately.
                     ~               ~
    
    stack pointer -->| orig position | And it's done; you are right back where you started,
                     |               | bookkeeping wise, when you made the call.  Any 
                     |               | changes you made to the arguments are history, for
                     ~               ~ all practical purposes (they may persist until the
                                       next stack operation).
    
    If you passed an argument as a reference, any modifications you made to the value it
    referred to are, of course, in force. If you modified the reference, itself, to point
    to something else, you could modify that something else, also (for example, subsequent
    bytes pointed to by a char *). The reference itself disappears. If you pass an argument
    by value, that value is perfectly usable to the called procedure; it could specify a length to
    use for some operation, for example. If you modify the value, such modifications disappear
    when the arguments disappear, immediately after the called procedure returns to the
    caller. If you want lasting changes in the caller, you need to make them by reference or
    RETURN a value from the called procedure.
     
  5. karun_happy

    karun_happy New Member

    thxs DaWei
     

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