Engineering Concepts Tutorials

Engineering Concepts Tutorials for UML, Operations Research, Numerical Methods and many more.
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What is MD5 or MD5sum? Its a formula - a way to take a message of an arbitrary length, and create a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the message. MD5 is a way to verify data integrity. On these forums, it comes up fairly often in discussions about storing user passwords and other...
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We found it necessary to devote a chapter to Trojans. Trojan's are probably the most compromising of all types of attacks. Trojans are being released by the hundreds every week, each more cleverly designed that the other. We all know the story of the Trojan horse probably the greatest strategic...
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TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de...
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What is Blu-ray? Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of a next-generation optical disc format. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times...
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Introduction The way we make phone calls is changing. In fact in many circumstances things have already changed. Take long distance calls for instance, many service providers are already using a technology called Voice Over IP or VOIP for short. If you have never heard of VOIP before, then the...
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Introduction and background Computer viruses tend to grab our attention. On the one hand, viruses show us how vulnerable we are. A properly engineered virus can have an amazing effect on the worldwide Internet. On the other hand, they show how sophisticated and interconnected human beings have...
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Are You Invisible Online? It's true that your IP address is no secret. It's a basic part of internet communication protocols to send your IP address whenever you connect to another site, request a web page, chat, play an online game, etc. Without your IP address, the computer on the other...
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A binary-safe function is a function or operation that can be performed on a binary file without modifying the contents of the file. This ensures that the file is not corrupted or mutilated by the function or operation. Binary data is encoded as a string of ones and zeros (bits), but is not...
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SPF or Sender Policy Framework is a system created to prevent e-mail spam & e-mail spoofing. It does so by verifying the sender's IP address is a authorized one for the domain the mail is originating from. SPF requires domain admins to add DNS TXT or SPF records specifying hosts/IPs allowed to...
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All software developers must have used some VCS (Version Control System) at a point of their career, most would say SVN, which is currently the widely used VCS in the software industry. Enter Git, created by Linus Torvalds in response to missing features & performance issues in the other VCSs,...
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Amazon SQS (Simple Queue Service) is yet another amazing product from Amazon, which provides a reliable, easy & highly scalable hosted queue service for storing messages, which can be accessed by any computer on any network. This provides a way to simply move around messages between computers or...
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After Introduction to Git VCS, this is the second installment in the series, here we'll be see how to setup a workflow, copying repositories & maintaining a central repository to help developers/contributors collaborate. Cloning In most of the other version control systems, checking out is a...
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Memcached is a free & open-source, robust, fast & distributed memory object caching system. Memcached was originally developed by Brad Fitzpatrick for LiveJournal in 2003. Since then it has gone a long way and today top websites like Youtube, Facebook & Twitter use memcached. Memcached works on...
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It might happen that your hard disk died on you, or the DVD backup you had does not read correctly. Generally, CD & DVD media retain data correctly for a few years (or more, depending on the quality of the media), after which data loss starts slowly with read errors increasing from the outer tracks...
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DKIM stands for DomainKeys Identified Mail, it helps associate a domain with an email message to help prove the authenticity of the message. DKIM is a successor of DomainKeys developed by Yahoo!, it was deprecated in 2007 but some providers still use it. DKIM was created by an informal group and...
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Git is popular distributed version control system, it was developed by inventor of Linux, Linus Torvalds. Git has been gaining huge popularity in the ope-source community as well as in the corporate world due to it's distributed nature and efficiency. I had a written a few articles on Git to...
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I have tried introducing people to Git VCS, both personally and through by articles at G4E, I have written 2 articles, Introduction to Git VCS & Git VCS - Cloning & Workflow, in this article Get A List Of Files Modified Between Two Commits At times working on a feature or an enhancement of an...
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HAProxy stands for High Availability Proxy, is an open-source TCP/HTTP load balancer. In case you are new to the idea of a load balancer, the work of a load balancer is to distribute incoming requests to an array of upstream servers so as no single upstream server is overworked/overloaded by...
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APNS or Apple Push Notification Service, is service for Apple devices like iPhone, iPad & iPod to send 3rd party notifications to devices. It was launched with iOS version 3.0, it's very helpful for the app developers as they do not have to frequently poll for updates, instead they can submit the...
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GCM or Google Cloud Messaging is a service for developers to send notifications from remote servers to their Android apps or Chrome extensions, the notification may be sent anytime irrespective of the Android device being online or not, the notification will be delivered when the device comes...
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