C++ Programming Tutorials

C++ Programming Tutorials And Articles
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C++ standard library is a set of user defined types(classes), objects and functions which help to develop applications. Without standard library it is very very difficult to write a useful application. Standard library is an integrated part of the language and the language specification defines the...
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We have discussed about inbuilt data types and inbuilt operators which operate on inbuilt data types only. We also discussed about user defined data types. Don’t you think that the operators should work for user defined data types also. You know that we cannot create new operators or change the...
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Different components of C++ programming The various essential components used in C++ programming are as explained below: Class: The class is a template used for demonstrating the behavior supported by the object Object: The object in C++ consists of states and behaviors. An object is an...
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Many experienced programmers have ignored the fact that the major release C++11 has added lot of features which are part of modern programming technique. If you are passionate programmer and loves C++ as the programming language you must know those new features. The objective of this topic is to...
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Releasing memory allocated in heap has been always been a concern for programming languages like C and C++. Memory leak is a side effect of using dynamic memory allocation in C++. This is because C++ compiler does not support automatically release memory allocated in heap when they are no more...
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To understand usage of auto and decltype keyword you need to know the existing type deduction facility available in C++98, because auto and decltype are C++11/C++14 extension to the existing feature of the compiler to deduce type from another expression. In case you are not aware of existing type...
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C++ always has been creating fast programs, still there were loop holes which could substantially slow down C++ programs until C++11. This was due to temporary object creation and expensive object copies. C++11 added a new reference type called 'rvalue reference' and a new concept of moving object...
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We know that C++11 added the feature of rvalue reference. Here assumption is that the reader is already familiar with rvalue and lvalue and their references. As we know that we declare rvalue reference with double ampersand like: int&& var1 = 10; // var1 is an rvalue reference variable means it...
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In C++ we already know different uses of the ellipsis operator (…) in different context. It is used for functions with variable number of argument, variadic macros and in catch block in exception handling. Let us look into these existing meaning of ellipsis operator (…) in different context and...
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When the name of something or some person is big and we are bored to call the same long name again and again we try to find a short name easy to call in place of original name. This is like a nickname. In C++11 programming, we use aliasing to create shorter type name for an existing longer type...
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C is not a strong type based language but C++ has been trying to become a stronger type based language. Classes and structures are example of strong types whereas the implicit conversion between different types is an example of weak type system. For example, in the following decelerations implicit...
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In C++ we have two types of functions: stand alone function and member function(non-static). After the compilation both are just function. Difference between a class member function and a standalone function is that the class data is bound to the member function but no external data can be bound to...
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Concurrency in applications is the ability of the application to have more than one independent execution path and still work for the common goal. This implies that the independent execution paths need to communicate with each other while getting executed. Here for the simplicity of the discussion...
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Not so experienced developers of Windows applications like me, always get confused in the first place when they think about the implementation of multi-threading. Not you? You might be expert though. My objective is to help novice programmers and the guys who don’t claim to be expert but do...
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C++11 has introduced a lot of of features to make programming easier. For example automatic type deduction and less typing. Range based for loop and std::for_each() functions are among those. They are new techniques for iterating through the elements of a sequence container, like vector, arrays or...
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In the earlier chapters we discussed that we write programs in human readable text and then the compiler converts it to machine readable format so that the CPU can execute the program. Now I will give an overview of the compilation process. It is not mandatory to know how compilers compile your...
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Before we go into the details of C++ templates let us take an example of function overloading. I am assuming you know what is function overloading. #include<iostream> using namespace std; int larger(int n1, int n2) { cout << "int larger(int, int) is called" << endl; return n1 > n2...
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In the previous chapter we saw how to compile a C++ source code in a single file. The extension of the source code file name should be .cpp (*.cpp). We also included other files inside the cpp file. While we can include any text file with any name but the standard is to include header files which...
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In previous chapter we came to know about data types. There are data types defined by the language called in-built data types. C++ also allows to create new data types. In this chapter we will concentrate only on in-built data types. We will discuss user defined data types later. C++ basically...
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Basically computer programming is all about data and manipulation of data. The manipulation is called operation and operations are accomplished with the help of functions and operators. Like functions work with data, operators also work with data. The difference between functions and operators are...
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