C++ Programming Tutorials

C++ Programming Tutorials And Articles
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C++ standard library is a set of user defined types(classes), objects and functions which help to develop applications. Without standard library it is very very difficult to write a useful application. Standard library is an integrated part of the language and the language specification defines the...
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We learned that all the variables have type. We also learned that type specify the memory size required to store the variable data and the interpretation of the data. So far we discussed about predefined (in-built) data types which are specified in the language specification. We use language...
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Many experienced programmers have ignored the fact that the major release C++11 has added lot of features which are part of modern programming technique. If you are passionate programmer and loves C++ as the programming language you must know those new features. The objective of this topic is to...
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Releasing memory allocated in heap has been always been a concern for programming languages like C and C++. Memory leak is a side effect of using dynamic memory allocation in C++. This is because C++ compiler does not support automatically release memory allocated in heap when they are no more...
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To understand usage of auto and decltype keyword you need to know the existing type deduction facility available in C++98, because auto and decltype are C++11/C++14 extension to the existing feature of the compiler to deduce type from another expression. In case you are not aware of existing type...
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C++ always has been creating fast programs, still there were loop holes which could substantially slow down C++ programs until C++11. This was due to temporary object creation and expensive object copies. C++11 added a new reference type called 'rvalue reference' and a new concept of moving object...
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We know that C++11 added the feature of rvalue reference. Here assumption is that the reader is already familiar with rvalue and lvalue and their references. As we know that we declare rvalue reference with double ampersand like: int&& var1 = 10; // var1 is an rvalue reference variable means it...
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In C++ we already know different uses of the ellipsis operator (…) in different context. It is used for functions with variable number of argument, variadic macros and in catch block in exception handling. Let us look into these existing meaning of ellipsis operator (…) in different context and...
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C is not a strong type based language but C++ has been trying to become a stronger type based language. Classes and structures are example of strong types whereas the implicit conversion between different types is an example of weak type system. For example, in the following decelerations implicit...
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In C++ we have two types of functions: stand alone function and member function(non-static). After the compilation both are just function. Difference between a class member function and a standalone function is that the class data is bound to the member function but no external data can be bound to...
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Concurrency in applications is the ability of the application to have more than one independent execution path and still work for the common goal. This implies that the independent execution paths need to communicate with each other while getting executed. Here for the simplicity of the discussion...
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The words Initialization List indicates that it is related to initializing something. What is to be initialized? Ok, when memory is allocated for any object of any type (primitive or user defined) the content of the memory can be undefined or set to some standard value (preferably zero) specific to...
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Not so experienced developers of Windows applications like me, always get confused in the first place when they think about the implementation of multi-threading. Not you? You might be expert though. My objective is to help novice programmers and the guys who don’t claim to be expert but do...
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C++ has a lot of way of initializing an object but prior to C++11 there was no single way of initialization applicable to all type of objects. That was the motivation to find a single way of initialization in C++11. Novice programmers may get confused with initialization and assignment...
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nullptr A C++ programmer frequently come across pointer variables, pointer arguments to function and pointer template arguments. Let us take different cases to see how C++98 handles the situation where a pointer is set to nothing. When we write void *p = 0; or void *p = NULL; What do we do?...
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Objective of a programming language is to make the life of programmers easy. Human programmers do mistakes while writing code. While writing code you might be writing something different from what is in your mind. This can be due to typos, absent mindedness, misunderstanding the language syntax or...
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Basically computer programming is all about data and manipulation of data. The manipulation is called operation and operations are accomplished with the help of functions and operators. Like functions work with data, operators also work with data. The difference between functions and operators are...
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As the name suggests STL is the part of the C++ standard library which provides a rich set of template classes and template functions to make application development faster. It is a software library, a very important part of the standard library and influenced other parts of the standard library....
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Objects vs Closures Closures might not be a familiar term for most of the C++ programmers. C++ programmers are very much familiar with class, object and function. Instances of classes are first-class objects in C++ but functions are not first-class entity in C++. An object or function to be...
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All container classes are part of std name space. Most of the member functions of container classes are common and have common functionality. The decision of which container to use for specif need does not generally depend on the functionality of a container but the efficiency of some of it’s...
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