C++ Programming Tutorials

C++ Programming Tutorials And Articles
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There are three techniques used to pass variables into a C or C++ functions. Pass by value C/C++ Pass a pointer by value C/C++ Pass by reference C++ only Pass by value The function receives a copy of the variable. This local copy has scope, that is, exists only within the function....
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The size of a class can be changed simply by playing with the order of its members' declaration: struct A { bool a; int b; bool c; }; /*sizeof (A) == 12*/ On my machine, sizeof (A) equals 12. This result might seem surprising because the total size of A's members is only 6...
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One benefit of C++ over C is its exception handling system. An exception is a situation in which a program has an unexpected circumstance that the section of code containing the problem is not explicitly designed to handle. In C++, exception handling is useful bcause it makes it easy to separate...
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Certain applications need to invoke startup functions that run before the main program starts. For example, polling, billing, and logger functions must be invoked before the actual program begins. The easiest way to achieve this is by calling these functions from a constructor of a global object....
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The Input/Output system in C++, holds information about the result of every I/O operation. The current status is kept in an object from type io_state, which is an enumerated type (just like open_mode) that has the following values: godbit -> No errors. eofbit -> End of file has been reached...
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C++ FAQ's I've spent the past few weeks learning C++, and here are a bunch of FAQ's I came up with. Some of these Q n A's are from various sources, but I have edited and revised them using my own words. What is C++? C++ is a computer programming language. Its name is literally...
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Introduction Memory allocation for objects is a tough issue, sometimes. Dynamically allocated memory has to be treated specially when one object is used to initialize another. In default constructor a bit wise copy is done when one object is assigned to another, leaving no room for separate...
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Function pointer - how to declare function pointer in structure and how it call ,see it. #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <stdlib.h> typedef struct strfunptr { float a; float b;
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Introduction In C++ programs there is use of common data structures like stacks, queues and lists. A program may require a queue of customers and a queue of messages. One could easily implement a queue of customers, then take the existing code and implement a queue of messages. The program...
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It's a truly neutral question: given that there are many languages to choose from, why do you choose to program in C++? 1. Compared to many of the other OO languages (i.e. Java, C# etc.), C++ has better support for the functional programming style. 2. Good support for generic programming. ...
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Introduction Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around "objects" rather than "actions" and data rather than logic. Historically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces output data. The...
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Polymorphism is in short the ability to call different functions by just using one type of function call. It is a lot useful since it can group classes and their functions together. It is the most important part of Object-Oriented Programming. Polymorphism is the core of object-oriented programming...
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When exceptions occur, the programmer has to decide a strategy according to which he would handle the exceptions. The strategies could be, displaying the error messages on the screen, or displaying a dialog box in case of a GUI environment, or requesting the user to supply better or simply...
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Introduction Variables are seen as memory cells that can be accessed using their identifiers. This way we did not have to care about the physical location of our data within memory, we simply used its identifier whenever we wanted to refer to our variable. The memory of your computer can be...
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Three major concepts of C++ are Classes, Polymorphism, Inheritance.Let us discuss them in details. Classes A class is the implementation of an abstract data type. It defines attributes and methods which implement the data structure and operations of the abstract data type, respectively....
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Introduction To Binary Trees A binary tree is made of nodes, where each node contains a "left" pointer, a "right" pointer, and a data element. The "root" pointer points to the topmost node in the tree. The left and right pointers recursively point to smaller "subtrees" on either side. A null...
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Memory pools allow dynamic memory allocation comparable to malloc or the Operator new in C++. As those implementations suffer from fragmentation because of variable block sizes, it can be impossible to use them in a real time system due to performance. A more efficient solution is preallocating a...
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Casts are used to convert the type of an object, expression, function argument, or return value to that of another type. Some conversions are performed automatically by the compiler without intervention by the programmer. These conversions are called implicit conversions. The standard C++...
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Generics are parameterized types supported by the common language runtime. A parameterized type is a type that is defined with an unknown type parameter that is specified when the generic is used. C++ supports templates and both templates and generics support parameterized types to create typed...
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Templates, which are sometimes called parameterized types, are mechanisms for generating functions and classes based on type parameters. By using templates, you can design a single class or function that operates on data of many types, instead of having to create a separate class for each type. ...
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